Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Chesapeake Bay And What is Being Done About It

The Chesapeake is the largest estuary in North America. It is dying an unnatural death. It was there to welcome the first explorers and settlers of this land. Give the Chesapeake its due. The runoff from farms and developments is putting so much nitrogen and potassium in the water thast it causes blooms of algae which then take all the oxygen out of the water and kill anything there. The book I have listed and is here complete, is a catch-up on what is being done to ameliorate the damage...Jeff Darling

Sunday, April 24, 2011

Water Bottle Story- Please get your water from the tap!

The Story of Bottled Water is a story about how we, in order to save all the terrible problems with filling a stainless steel bottle from the tap, are creating 70 % of the plastic waste in the world. It is about enough fuel for one million cars- per year. It is not necessary, and it isn't healthy. The worst way to drink water is from plastic. Watch the film, if you don't agree. Tell me and tell me why. thanks...Jeff Darling (Oh if you noticed I wasn't around for a few days, my Hard Drive crashed)

Wednesday, April 20, 2011

What Happens in the Karoo: Happens to Us All

For my friends in the Karoo, and as a warning for all of us that this travesty against Nature is coming to every door. In America, there are more shale deposits in the US than anywheree and they are virtually everywhere. I have noted before that a break in the law was given so that no studies on damage are required and no information on the chemicals used is required to be issued.Wake Up.

The Karoo is one of the last untouched places in South Africa.
Film makers Johann Vorster and Theart Korsten from Happy Handgrenade Productions recently returned from the Karoo, filming a documentary exploring the threats of Hydraulic Fracturing and the concerns of the local residents.
To learn more about Hydraulic Fracturing visit treasurethekaroo.blogspot.com and add your voice.
We thank you!

Stop Hydraulic Fracturing in the Karoo. from Happy Handgrenade on Vimeo.

Saturday, April 16, 2011

History of the World-TED-for the next generation

I thank and hope to honor Dr. David Christianfor his work in making "the big History" Project possible.This is a TD presentation meant to be shared...Jeff Darling

Thursday, April 14, 2011

Fracking Blues

Please take a look and support this important cause. We can make a difference for these people trying to save the Karoo.
to see
and I
can't quite.

Saturday, April 9, 2011

Libuse Binder-4-4-2011 -Review

10 Ways to Change the World in Your 20s

Have you ever had the feeling you had just seen the next big thing? I was at an author speech this week and believe I watched something very unusual. A crowd of Young people(18-22) who were paying rapt attention as someone urged them to take responsibility. It was amazing and gratifying. After years of feeling pressured by the Status Quo environmentalists, this young woman Libuse Binder, showed them the need in a way that made them want to sign up now.

Her Book, 10 Ways to Change the World in Your 20s is a refreshing “lead the horse to water” approach that gets these kids’ attention. I have written a short review of the event to use. If I should need to make it longer or shorter, or if it would be better to include the book in the review, let me know. I have run some articles in The Rapidian, and a couple of events.
Jeff Darling
Website: Science Perspectives

Libuse Binder visited Grand Rapids April4&5 Lecturing at GVSU and GRCC campuses about her message of “Making a Change in the World in Your Twenties”
10 Ways to Change the World in your 20s-Tour

“10 Ways to Change the World in your 20s” is a pretty lengthy title, and a pretty strong claim. The author, Libuse Binder, acknowledges this in her opening statement. In fact she makes a bit of a clumsy joke about it. I think that it is perhaps her artistry with the apparently clumsy joke that makes this woman the artist of the year when it comes to penetrating the armor of apathy that has plagued this “generation of the electronic idol.”

Having attended the lecture, I think there was a fair enough sample of the book’s contents to review both in a reasonable light. The fact that most pertinent tables, list and facts were shown at least in brief gives a fair first representation. The fact that we had the author expressing what things about these tables and lists were pertinent to her mission (Her word) should put us in a position of advantage over those who only read the words.

Libuse’s mission, she makes it clear, is to empower, not preach. She has gone to great lengths to avoid imitating what she feels are the errors of the past. “In dealing with this generation, I avoid the word ‘should’,” she says with a smile.

A typical entry in Libuse’s “lists of things” with appropriate verb, (to empower, to resource, to change,) etc, would be:

Bring your values                             extend life of useful items
Vote with your dollar                       educate yourself
Eat real food                                   speak up
Every word on the lists meant to be a guide to action, without a should.  Libuse is banking on the "Don't say should" plan as an effective Vaccine against the Tree-Hugger finger-pointing of the past.                                   I hope the strategy proves to be a helpful as it is hopeful.

At the talk I attended, Libuse was careful to make eye contact with every person in the room, and for those representing her target, she stayed in eye contact mode a lot. It is clear the idea of gathering the best information, presenting it in steps, then guiding gently to where the ball is so they can go “find” it, has resonated with a generation.

The book and the author offer a simple method, beginning with the smaller steps, interlaced with accomplishments by those who have followed that path, to larger. Each step has its own prices and rewards, and she is quite honest about it all. I did not sense any sugar coating about the realities of the commitments she was endorsing. It also was clear that each possibility had other coaches farther down the road to show the next way. It played like a big community of pathfinders operating together.

The young people I was watching were mesmerized, by the way .All in all I see a bright future for this book, its author and its concepts. I have listened for years as every manager, educator, sociologist and NGO has thrashed about, seeking the “golden ring” of a method of getting through to this generation. I believe a Guru is upon us, and her name is Libuse Binder.

Thursday, April 7, 2011

Future Climate Change - Conversations from Penn State

The Truth About Global Warming, or climate change if you prefer. It is time for the Universities and NSF to finally quit placating Climate Deniers. I applaud Dr Richard Alley for taking the lead and making these things undeniable. We need to do this because even if we let it go there would only be inaction at a time when action is needed more than ever before. In times when the money men are willing to go to the extremes they have don't people see that it is your children that are going to pay for this inaction? Please get on board so we can get together and figure out what to do. This is way past the Tree-Huggers. All of us need to find out what we will do....Jeff Darling

Wednesday, April 6, 2011

Biodiversity/ Benefits to Clean Water/ University of Michigan

The University of Michigan's Bradley Cardinale has made a comprehensive study indicating that increased biodiversity does in fact actively promote water quality. This seems like a no-brainer, but it is solid science.  Climate deniers and those who would rope the EPA, for instance, can be effectively neutralized by fact....Jeff Darling

Sunday, April 3, 2011

Tools of the Wheel Wright- background of Tom Cutter

In a review of Tom Cutter's life,  visualize what things looked like and how the world was in the 1840's of the Michigan Frontier. I am doing this piece from my growing and continuing story 'The Challenge of Tom Cutter.' The story is taking place in the 1840-50's, as events unfolded. In the coming chapters:
 Tom has more trouble than he can handle as someone comes calling on the Yankee Springs Trail.
Tom has a time of it when he runs into someone who has some making up to do;
Jubal was a handful from the word go, but Tom's firm hand and Open heart show the way.
Available by going to http:// writing.com  click on authors then goto j_darling, the Challenge of Tom Cutter

I can see this place as the shop of Tom's cousin,George.

Here is a collection fit to open Tom's shop in Brownsville.

A nice wheelwright's Lathe (like George ultimately gave Tom)

The building of a good Hub insured that the wheel would be as solid as could be hoped for.
Join me in my exploration of another time as I continue and broaden the story of Tom Cutter. I have gotten him started in frontier Michigan. He has had some genuine adventures and will be having more as he gets to know his new, frontier life, and the people who are waiting to be part of his future. Go to writing.com, look up Author-j_darling- small j then underscore, then, darling, all small letters. they may ask you to sign up, but it is free, and there is no obligation to write, although it is nice to have if you ever want to. There is a wonderful community of folks at writing.com, come in and look around. (and read about Tom)

Friday, April 1, 2011

The Challenge of Tom Cutter

Here is a short story I have been working on at writing.com I have a couple others there and will likely have more as time goes by. Go to writing.com, and go to authors, or fill the author space with  j_darling as that is my name there. Here is a preview, but go and read it. It is only a few pages long at this point, but complete.


My name is Tom Cutter. I was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1829, 25 years ago. I later moved to Detroit, where I lived for several years.  I entered an Apprenticeship with George Cunningham, a cousin to my Mother, as a Wheelwright.  One thing I must admit: I had a family relationship with Cousin George.  He treated me like I was his own son.  My cousin beat me, worked me like a slave from dawn to dusk and then stole my money just like my own dear old father.

My cousin also taught me how to solve a problem, and I have one. I haven’t the tools I need to open shop in a livery. I had planned on my fee for serving my cousin for an extra two years. It could take another two years to save enough for the start of our Homestead. Captain Townsend the steamboat Captain told me He had taken 2,000 immigrants to St. Joseph and Grand Rapids himself last year Sweeney at the Port Authority told me: If I don’t go now for the land, with 12,000 immigrants coming  this year alone, the pickings were going to be slim.  I knew I had to put first things first and get my property, but I really didn’t know what I was going to do afterwards.

It started six months ago, in early spring. I knew it was time to leave George’s shop; I had been a Journeyman for two years.  I worked some jobs on the side so I had a little money put away in a place where George wouldn’t find it. I also had a fee coming from George for staying two years extra after completing my Journeyman card.  I had decided to start in a new place, and Brownsville, outside Grand Rapids, seemed like a good choice.  I went to the Land Office in Kalamazoo and looked the offering (Over 5oo tracts) over well. I found three tracts of land I thought might be nice, according to surveyor's notes, then I went to have a look.

I went to Brownsville prepared. I had a wagon, which I would leave with a friend of mine from Pennsylvania. I had left most of the pots and pans and household things I would need back in Detroit with Molly, the girl I planned to wed. I had been close with Molly Duffy since I came to Michigan.
I got a room at the Oak Grove House, owned By Mr. Asahel Kent, right next to the Battle Creek Trail, at 100th.  I could almost travel a straight line to anywhere and not get lost once.

The hotel where Tom might have stayed

Tuesday, March 29, 2011

Help TKAG Stop Fracking

Help TKAG Stop Fracking.

This is a film from some friends of mine in the Karoo. This is a portion of South Africa. It is a beautiful place, which still contains wild lands and native people in some of it. They have seen the effects of Fracking. They are standing up. Shell Oil is the purveyor this time. WE need to stand with them and learn from them. I cannot be sure if there is a safe way to conduct this practice of Fracking.

I do know that the Oil Companies are determined to buffalo their way through without finding out. If they bully us into submission, they will do whatever they please, as the bill that has protected them so far says they don't have to test, report or take responsibility for the damages caused by the practice of Fracking. Bush and Cheney hid this free pass into other legislation. This is called Halliburton's bill. Look it up.

The Oil and gas companies who use this process(and it is nearly all of them) are pumping millions of gallons of Diesel fuel, hydraulic fluid and whatever they like, into the ground.  Support the protectors of the Karoo. Stop Fracking here, until it is proven what it will take for this practice to be safe...Jeff Darling 

A Few words from the leader of the "Save the Karoo"movement: my friend, Louise Maartens Venter:

This is something all South Africans should see. Please act against fracking now before it's
too late. It's about our health, our water, our landscape, our people, our economic 
upliftment, our future and our children's heritage. Shell and others want to start with 24 wells. Gas is NOT a renewable or sustainable source of energy, it is NOT more ozone friendly. Please don't believe the propaganda. Read up and decide for yourself.

Thursday, March 24, 2011

Not Just Polar Bears- Endangered species abound

The day gets closer and closer. Global warming is a reality. Someone told me recently, God said He would not wipe out man with another flood, and that is how we know it is not real. I tell you- Global warming is not about a flood.It is about animals that cannot reproduce, that cannot feed their young, that cannot adapt anywhere near as quickly as we can corrupt. Man is the destroyer: of a million acres a week in each great Rain Forest, of the ice caps at the north an south poles, of the air we breathe. And those who "Forge Her Beauty Into Power" will do anything to keep us in their stranglehold.

The tortoise changes the sex of its offspring if the ambient temperature is 4 degrees over normal. What will they do if they can only produce females? The Salmon, such a wonder of nature(just ask the Bear) is helpless to decline without the cold stream water. Ocean dwellers have a little more chance to move and avoid the excess warmth. What about those who feed on them? The Puffin for example, cannot fly miles further offshore to gather the fish they eat and bring them home to the chicks.

Corals are going faster yet. 10 years ago 2% were endangered now there are 30% of coral endangered as the oceans change faster every year. 
The freak weather associated with the climate changes continue to hold some of our most precious species hostage. Imagine a day without the Monarch Butterfly. Just recently 80% were wiped out by colder than normal storms, and the rain is predicted again this year. It isn't always the big change that causes the most impact. Bighorn Sheep, Pica, Snowy Owls are just some of the animals that need to move higher or further North, but what if they can't even find it? It is past time to act. Act, before it is too late.

Saturday, March 19, 2011

Mummified Trees Could Take Climate Scientists Back to the Future

Update of World Earthquake activity
For those tracking Japan Earthquake Aftershocks

And now tonight's story...
Mummified Trees Could Take Climate Scientists Back to the Future

It is clear that Joel Barker has found what is essentially fresh forest that is millions of years old. The trees and leaves were kept fresh by being sealed off from Oxygen immediately. The boon this has provided is amazing. Scientists will be able to extract data for a long time, and it will be interesting to seewhat else they find.
When in Quttinirpaaq National Park in the Canadian Arctic, Ohio State University Earth scientist Joel Barker initially spotted some pieces of dead trees scattered on the barren ground near a glacier. Immediately, he knew he had found something akin to a looking glass peering into the Arctic's ecological past.
Due to previous cores and recent discoveries,Barker's team can place the age of the discovery to between 2-12 million years ago. 

Also because of the state of the trees and leaves(yes leaves) being so pristine, scientists are going to be able to extrapolate much information from them that would be relevant to what we need to know about the effects of Global Warming on similar species.

Due to the fact of having found only about five different species, Barker has stated that it is pretty clear "Probably living at the most northern extent of its range, this forest was probably living at the edge, just hanging on, just barely staying alive," said Barker."

The landscape of Quttinirpaaq National Park is dominated by glaciers and sparse high-arctic tundra vegetation.

Credit: Joel Barker, Byrd Polar Research Center, Ohio State University

The mummified trees have very narrow growth rings, indicating a very harsh environment during their lifetime.

Credit: Joel Barker, Byrd Polar Research Center, Ohio State University

Researchers have found mummified leaves in the sediment of the mummified forest deposit at the Quttinirpaaq National Park.

Credit: Joel Barker, Byrd Polar Research Center, Ohio State University

Friday, March 18, 2011

Common Sense to End Climate Change-Stop Climate Denial

Please Help Me Find Common Sense Solutions!

The purpose of this showing of a NSF (National Science Foundation ) instructional piece on climate change is to educate. I am not here to tell you anything I do not find very good reason to believe. We need to begin to see the truth of each other, instead of letting others tell us why we should hate.

 I had someone tell me the other day that people refuse to believe Climate Change is real because God promised He would never again end the Earth in Flood. This could be very true and still have nothing to do with it. If something were going to end life on Earth due to Climate Change, it would not be the flooding.  The flooding is a bad thing, but certainly would not end life on Earth.  If, later, the change got worse and reached a point of always feeding itself in a loop that made it worse and worse, the final result would be Oceans boiling away and heat causing our demise. My question is: Why on Earth, for the sake of our children and their children, would we let it get that far when we can make sensible changes and get things better every year?  Why in the name of all that is Holy wouldn't we do that?  Let's do that...Jeff Darling

Thursday, March 17, 2011

The Story of Stuff- With a Science Perspective

We have allowed a bunch of Corporations with a very vested interest to take over our country. They did this with a plan and a purpose; to get filthy rich to the point where the money could no longer even mean anything. Annie Leonard is going to explain the plan.
 What I want you to get is that this is not a conspiracy theory, it is not self-aggrandizing from tree-huggers. This is how come we all notice that our lives are so different and lacking in purpose.It is why we cannot get off the merry-go-round. It is why we ruin the forest, the people of the third world countries, our jobs and everything we ever held dear. It is a crazy train out of control. America can't be the bad guy, serving our selfish fat asses. But you know what? We are.
 We got snookered by a bunch of people who would do anything to be in charge. I am quite certain these were the kids who got their butts whooped on the way home from school. They are in Charge. We are on a spinning top and we need to remember who we are.
 It has gotten so that people flock to churches because they are so afraid of these changes. STOP THESE CHANGES. GET OFF THE FERRIS WHEEL.Go back to church 'cause you like it, not to be sure you are on the right side.
 It is time we demand more from our leaders. I knew something was funny when somehow, the Tea Party and the environmentalists were really on the same page. We all want the same thing. The Billionaires do not. They are not out to help us. This is the beginning of saying no to this and taking our lives and our country back. Join Me. ..Jeff Darling

By now a lot of you have seen 'The Story of Stuff, by Annie Leonard and the Story of Stuff Project. I firmly congratulate and appreciate the vision Annie Leonard and a handful of others show when they make these things to get through to us. Thank you...Jeff Darling

Wednesday, March 16, 2011


NASA Has view of Affected area of Japan

The ESA has overhead photos of the before and After of the earthquake.

Before                           After

Friday, March 11, 2011

Science Perspective: News, Essays, Comment: Japan suffers Mega-Quake, 8.9 and Tsunami,up to 10...

Science Perspective: News, Essays, Comment: Japan suffers Mega-Quake, 8.9 and Tsunami,up to 10...: "Publish Post It seems like the end of WWII again. Japan has seen hard times lately. It has been ten years since the beginning of the Japan..."

Japan suffers Mega-Quake, 8.9 and Tsunami,up to 1000 dead

 From The Editor whatever your reason for being here, be it essay material or whatever, thank you. However, I would really appreciate comments as they are the only way I can tell what is bringing you here, so I can make it more or better...Thanks...Jeff Darling

It seems like the end of WWII again.Mass destruction on an untold scale, images that numb the soul. Japan has seen hard times lately. It has been ten years since the beginning of the Japanese Economic slump.It seemed for a while as though things might be picking up in the longest stagnant economy in recent memory. Unfortunately the deck just gets more and more rigged in a country that is considered doomed. With a population that is even older than the U.S. and Europe(overall) things could hardly look worse for this once economic superpower.
The problems for Japan are so many. Besides the number of elderly, which is growing daily, the population is shrinking so there is no growth to be seen anywhere, which would help to level the age problem.Japan has survived this long, at least twenty years , buy selling their debt to their own people. Their circumstance is the worst of the industrial western world.
After all this, Japan suffered its worst earthquake in recorded history today, along with over sixty aftershocks. It is a testament to human will how these people keep going under the circumstances they endure.
Reports have the death toll will be over 1000 dead, and there are thousands missing right now.
On top of this, several nuclear facilities were gaining pressure as they tried cool-down emergency procedures. The control rooms were reported to contain atmosphere with 100 times approved radiation levels. The auto industries were in the midst of their greatest change over in years, as they prepared to start most of their production in electric motor-vehicles as opposed to the traditional gas. It is going to be a" long climb for Japan" according to Naoto Kan, Prime Minister.
We wish you well, Japan...Jeff Darling

Japan has suffered a Mega-quake. 8.9 Richter and a follow-up of several severe aftershocks, along with a major Tsunami, seen here

Thursday, March 10, 2011

Santa Rosa island of California :PaleoIndians -Stone-age -'Boat People' ?

A new picture of stone age California?

1:52 PM
The Channel Islands are 10-12 miles off the coast of California, and since they are effectively isolated, it means some of the species there are only there. They are what we call unique to the area. Between ten and twelve thousand years ago the sea level over the entire Earth was much lower, which means islands are much larger, since the sea covers much less of the land. Even when the sea level was much lower, the people couldn't have swum there, so we know they used Boats. This was a long time before traditional Archeology and anthropology tell us people used boats, so this is a big deal. Rick Torben(credits) and his team published an article about this in the newest Science Magazine, the elite magazine of Science today.

The study conducted by Torben et.al, found material and evidence on three sites on the Channel islands. Together, there had been one large island,  Santa Rosa.  San Miguel and some of the others in the area only became islands again after the sea level rose and covered them with ocean. According to Torben, a lucky break in the whole investigation is due to the lack of burrowing animals on the islands. "They tend to dig through and mix up the layers we use to determine age", Torben indicated.

The most interesting things found have to do with differences between the human population 12,000 years ago and later layers of the record. Although on San Miguel Island "for instance, were found with a lot of pretty remarkable tools, but the animal materials(food) were largely shellfish" This indicates they were equipped to hunt Mammals, seals, many kinds of food.  However," on Santa Rosa Island, they found fish and marine mammals," almost exclusively. Also in the 12'000 year range on the digs, they were surprised to find that the groups of Paleoindian s living there were using a small, very fine head for hunting.

 It was clear the" Channel Island barbed points" they were using were very like Arrow Heads. Torben stopped short of saying the word  Arrowheads . That  technology that was not supposed to have been known in that part of the world for several thousand more years. Torben said "We haven’t pushed that envelope, we’re still  trying to figure out technologically what that means, but we can say with certainty that  these are extremely delicate, finely made tools that don’t occur later in time. 
 On a mission like this, a scientist has to be sure before He uses a term that breaks such ground as this would. Writers do not have as much a restriction.  Interestingly, once again the Channel Island Indians  seem to lose the technology they once had.

In the rest of the investigation, it came clear that as these groups settled in the islands for thousands there were surprises in what changed and what did not. Their tools really did not advance much, staying pretty much static, Torben indicated. On the other hand, rather than continue to advance in culture and food, they seem to have regressed to eating mostly shellfish, after having a varied diet when they arrived. It is a certainty that we have a lot to learn about the Channel Island Indians before it is done.
To Hear the Interview:
Thanks to U.S. Gov, Nat park service, for the photo.

Wednesday, March 9, 2011

Stop Hydraulic Fracturing Now!

Stop Frakking...Period.

We have seen plenty of evidence to know by now that Hydraulic Fracturing is bad news. It is inexcusable to allow free rein and special exemptions for industry to take such advantage of our precious resources. To take advantage of US.The mixture of chemicals used for frakking needs to be made public. The law that gives these manufacturers free rein must be rescinded. If they are not in compliance with Federal law under the EPA, and they are not prosecuted only because they are excused from reporting, they are criminals, and should be dealt with accordingly. Write your Congressman or  Senator today. We are asking for the basic rights we were accorded forty years ago to be upheld. Do not let a handful of greedy millionaires to commit these crimes without even having to show whether their practices are safe or not.Thank You...Jeff Darling

Stop Hydraulic Fracturing in the Karoo

We need to stop fracking in this area for the sake of our environment, our future, our livelihoods, our health, our quality of life and our children's heritage!


"Large parts of South Africa's beautiful, but water-poor and ecologically sensitive Karoo region are under threat of being devastated by mining operations to extract natural gas using a controversial technique called hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking'.

During fracking millions of litres of water, sand and numerous chemicals most of which are toxic, carcinogic as well as teratogenic (they include benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, ethylene glycol (antifreeze), diesel fuel, naphthalene (moth ball) compounds, boric acid, arsenic, poly nuclear organic hydrocarbons, only to name a few of 500-odd chemicals used), are pumped into boreholes at high pressure to release natural gas (called shale gas) trapped in layers of underground rock.

In the USA, where fracking has been used extensively, there have been hundreds of documented cases of this process resulting in:

- catastrophic drinking water pollution;

- air pollution;

- health concerns for humans and animals; and

- general environmental degradation.

Right now, Shell and other international and local companies are preparing to explore tens of thousands of square kilometres of land in South Africa for natural gas exploration by fracking. Most of the area under threat is already extremely water-stressed and can not afford any water to be either wasted or contaminated by the fracking process which, once in full production, may involve tens of thousands of boreholes and billions of litres of water.

There is a growing groundswell of opposition to the use of fracking in South Africa by a broad coalition of farmers, environmental organisations and ordinary citizens.

(Quoted from www.care2.com on 21 February 2011)


  1. Fracking may pose serious risks to our environment in terms of pollution.
  2. Fracking will contaminate our vulnerable water supply.
  3. Fracking poses serious health for humans and animals alike.
  4. www.thepetitionsite.com/295/--if-gte-...
  5. www.thepetitionsite.com/.../--if-gte-mso-9xml-wworddocument- wviewnormalwview-wzoom0wzoom-wpunctuationkerning/

Tuesday, March 8, 2011

The National Academies of Science -World's Coral Reefs Under Pressure

The National Academies of Science has put out a new book. At first, I admit, I though, what the Hell, we already pay for everything they do. but, on reflection I guess it is a moderate price(most science books start at $80.00.) I think it is a pretty well done book, and will put in a concise clear context exactly what is going wrong, by way of acidity, climate change and CO2. It actually could be a pretty good model of how to do and promote a book which is valid and useful in the ongoing fight against Global Warming and the fight to have it clearly understood. In this book it goes through why global warming is hurting the food chain in the ocean. It also goes over things like overfishing, and why they are not a part of Global Warming. These should be kept separate so we keep straight who to fight and who to help. Anybody that buys the Book: I am doing this display because it was the only way to put out all of it's valuable information and not break laws. I am not affiliated with the National Academy of Sciences(although if they insist, they should get hold of me anytime, I mean it, anytime, through this site) I also make no money or discount for running this. I think you can switch on a lot of the pages and graphics for free so do that. I hope it is fun and a good idea.. Thanks...Jeff Darling

 Print this

World's Coral Reefs Under Pressure
© PhotoXpress
According to a new report by the World Resources Institute (WRI), about 75 percent of the world’s coral reefs will be highly threatened by 2050 due to climate change, change in ocean chemistry, and other pressures.   The WRI report suggests that absorption of carbon dioxide emitted by human activities is increasing the acidity of the ocean and disrupting coral reef growth. Damage or growth disruption to coral reefs may adversely affect marine biodiversity creating short- and long-term consequences for marine life and people.

The National Research Council report Ocean Acidification: A National Strategy to Meet the Challenges of a Changing Ocean says that man-made carbon dioxide emissions are changing ocean chemistry at an unprecedented rate. Excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been absorbed by the ocean, making sea water more acidic. To date, carbon dioxide from fossil fuel emissions and changes in land use have increased average ocean acidity by 30 percent. The report finds the federal government's National Ocean Acidification Program, currently in development, a positive move toward coordinating efforts to understand and respond to the problem and recommends six key elements to create a successful program.

The book is under here

News from the National Academies
Read Report Summary

Date:  April 22, 2010
Contacts:  Jennifer Walsh, Media Relations Officer
Alison Burnette, Media Relations Assistant
Office of News and Public Information
202-334-2138; e-mail



WASHINGTON -- The changing chemistry of the world's oceans is a growing global problem, says the summary of a congressionally requested study by the National Research Council, which adds that unless man-made carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are substantially curbed, or atmospheric CO2 is controlled by some other means, the ocean will continue to become more acidic.  The long-term consequences of ocean acidification on marine life are unknown, but many ecosystem changes are expected to result.  The federal government's National Ocean Acidification Program, currently in development, is a positive move toward coordinating efforts to understand and respond to the problem, said the study committee. 

The ocean absorbs approximately a third of man-made CO2 emissions, including those from fossil-fuel use, cement production, and deforestation, the summary says.  The CO2 taken up by the ocean decreases the pH of the water and leads to a combination of chemical changes collectively known as ocean acidification. 

Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the average pH of ocean surface waters has decreased approximately 0.1 unit -- from about 8.2 to 8.1 -- making them more acidic.  Models project an additional 0.2 to 0.3 drop by the end of the century.  This rate of change exceeds any known to have occurred in hundreds of thousands of years, the report says.  The ocean will become more acidic on average as surface waters continue to absorb atmospheric CO2, the committee said. 

Studies on a number of marine organisms have shown that lowering seawater pH with COaffects biological processes, such as photosynthesis, nutrient acquisition, growth, reproduction, and individual survival depending upon the amount of acidification and the species tested, the committee found.  For example, some of the strongest evidence of the potential effects of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems comes from experiments on organisms with calcium carbonate shells and skeletons.  The results showed decreases in shell and skeletal growth in a range of marine organisms, including reef-building corals, commercially important mollusks such as oysters and mussels, and several types of plankton at the base of marine food webs. 

The ability of various marine organisms to acclimate or adapt to ocean acidification is unknown, but existing data suggest that there will be ecological winners and losers, leading to shifts in the composition and functioning of many marine ecosystems, the committee said.  Such ecosystem changes could threaten coral reefs, fisheries, protected species, and other natural resources. 

Although changes in ocean chemistry caused by increasing atmospheric CO2 can be determined, not enough information exists to assess the social or economic effects of ocean acidification, much less develop plans to mitigate or adapt to them, the committee noted. 

The federal government has taken initial steps to respond to the nation's long-term needs with the development of the National Ocean Acidification Program.  The committee found that legislation has laid the foundation for a program that will advance our understanding and improve our response to ocean acidification. 

The committee recommended six key elements of a successful National Ocean Acidification Program:

·         an integrated ocean acidification observation network that includes the development of new tools, methods, and techniques to improve measurements
·         research in eight broad areas to fulfill critical information gaps
·         assessments to identify stakeholder concerns and a process to provide relevant information for decision support
·         a data management office that would ensure data quality, access, and archiving, plus an information exchange that would provide research results, syntheses, and assessments to managers, policymakers, and the general public
·         facilities to support high-quality research and training of ocean acidification researchers
·         an effective 10-year strategic plan for the program that will identify key goals, set priorities, and allow for community input, in addition to a detailed implementation plan

The study is funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Science Foundation.  The National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council make up the National Academies.  They are independent, nonprofit institutions that provide science, technology, and health policy advice under an 1863 congressional charter.  Committee members, who serve pro bono as volunteers, are chosen by the Academies for each study based on their expertise and experience and must satisfy the Academies' conflict-of-interest standards.  The resulting consensus reports undergo external peer review before completion.  For more information, visit http://national-academies.org/studycommitteprocess.pdf.  A committee roster follows.

Copies of the summary for the report OCEAN ACIDIFICATION: A NATIONAL STRATEGY TO MEET THE CHALLENGES OF A CHANGING OCEAN are available from the National Academies Press; tel. 202-334-3313 or 1-800-624-6242 or on the Internet at HTTP://WWW.NAP.EDU.   Reporters may obtain a copy from the Office of News and Public Information (contacts listed above). 
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[ This news release and summary of the study are available at HTTP://NATIONAL-ACADEMIES.ORG ]

Division on Earth and Life Studies
Ocean Studies Board

FRANCOIS M.M. MOREL * (CHAIR)Albert G. Blanke Jr. Professor of GeosciencesDirector, Center for Environment BioInorganic ChemistryPrinceton UniversityPrincetonN.J.
DAVID ARCHER Professor Department of Geophysical SciencesUniversity of ChicagoChicago
JAMES P. BARRY Senior ScientistMonterey Bay Aquarium Research InstituteMoss Landing, Calif.
GARRY D. BREWER Frederick K. Weyerhauser Professor of Resource and Policy ManagementSchool of MangementYale UniversityNew HavenConn.
JORGE E. CORREDOR ProfessorDepartment of Marine SciencesUniversity of Puerto Rico - MayaguezLajasPuerto Rico
SCOTT C. DONEYSenior ScientistDepartment of Marine Chemistry and GeochemistryWoods Hole Oceanographic InstitutionWoods Hole, Mass.

VICTORIA J. FABRY Professor of BiologyDepartment of Biological SciencesCalifornia State UniversitySan Marcos

GRETCHEN E. HOFMANN ProfessorDepartment of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraSanta Barbara
DANIEL S. HOLLAND Research ScientistGulf of Maine Research InstitutePortland

JOAN A. KLEYPAS Scientist IINational Center for Atmospheric ResearchBoulderColo.

FRANK J. MILLERO Professor of Marine and Physical ChemistryRosentiel School of Marine and Atmospheric ScienceUniversity of MiamiMiami
ULF RIEBESELL Head of Biological OceanographyMarine Biogeochemistry/Biological OceanographyLeibniz Institute of Marine SciencesKielGermany


Study Director
 *  Member, National Academy of Sciences